Research Note: Using the ITERATE and DOTS Databases
By Peter A. Flemming, Edward Mickolus, and Todd Sandler
For more than three decades, Vinyard Software’s two ITERATE (International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events) datasets have set the standard in events research for terrorism researchers. It has recently been supplemented by the DOTS (Data on Terrorist Subjects) biographies project, which covers all terrorists, supporters, and other individuals mentioned in the ITERATE project.
The textual version of ITERATE covers the genesis of contemporary international terrorism from 1960 through today. It is available in MSWord/WordPerfect format, and is based upon the chronologies published by Ed Mickolus, Todd Sandler, Jean Murdock, Peter Flemming and Susan Simmons with Greenwood Press and Iowa State University Press.
ITERATE’s numeric version, in Excel format, covers 1968 through today, coding the incidents discussed in the textual chronologies. It combines a family of four distinct but interrelated files which count the most salient components of international terrorism:
Common File 1968-2008
Hostage File 1968-2007
Fate File 1968-1987 (Update in Progress)
Skyjack File 1968-1987 (Update in Progress)
All variables and values for the data have remained constant. New values, however, are added with the emergence of new terrorist groups and types of terrorist activity.
ITERATE data are derived from Vinyard’s textual chronology of international terrorism which employs inter alia an exhaustive search of major media, research, news and information services. A partial list of media sources includes AP, UPI, Reuter, CNN , MSNB , AFP, The Washington Post, New York Times, LA Times, Time, Newsweek, and al Jazeera. The chronology also incorporates information obtained from interviews with government officials, scholars, and former hostages/others involved in international terrorist incidents. Additional sources include relevant manuscripts and scholarly publications dealing with the subject. Finally, the chronology uses many official government chronologies, including those published by the NCTC, FBI, CIA, US Department of State, and FAA. All of these sources have been consistently used since the inception of the data base. To ensure accuracy, ITERATE is updated daily and corrected constantly. Coding of the chronology ensures a high level of transparency wherein researchers are able to review and dissect individual cases from both a textual and numerical context. Researchers can also select subsets of the data for review, and alter variable values in specific cases.
The largest and the most comprehensive of the ITERATE files is the Common File, which covers 1968-2008 (we’re working on this year’s data as well). Its key features include:
41 years of continuous coverage
13,087 cases (1,295,613 characters)
42 variables accounting for:
187 locations (states/territories/protectorates) of international terrorism
9 distinct types of venues of international terrorism
26 identifiable types of incidents
Over 1,300 different terrorist groups
164 nationalities of terrorists and terrorist groups
175 nationalities of victims (states, IGOs and NGOs)
Over 100,000 immediate victims
Over 50,000 victims wounded
Over 20,000 fatalities
Logistic success of international terrorist incidents
Key features of other files include:
14 variables in the Fate File, covering:
29 distinct fates of terrorists such as death, escape, jail sentence and asylum
Extradition requests and their outcomes
41 variables in the Hostage File, covering:
Hostage-taker behavior including demands for media coverage, prisoner releases, political change and ransom
Types, amounts and sources of ransom
Terrorist behavior involving deadlines
Terrorist behavior toward hostages
Types of negotiators and their behavior
Outcome of incidents
Length of incidents
27 variables in the Skyjack File, covering:
Types of aircraft involved (118 identified)
Airlines involved (over 200)
Location of incidents
Number of victims and casualties
Types of weapons employed
Duration of incidents
Outcome of skyjackings
The ITERATE dataset is a particularly valuable research tool for dissecting the dynamics of international terrorism. Each of its four files can be used separately, or in conjunction with one another. Incident codes for each event enable immediate cross reference, with data from the Fate, Hostage and Skyjack Files, expanding incident information found in the Common File. This dataset is designed with a high degree of functionality so that it is compatible for use with other non-terrorism related data. For instance, analysis of much of the ITERATE data can be combined with various social, political, economic or geopolitical indices. Data from ITERATE are easily selected out or copied for research directed at one specific aspect of international terrorism and its relationship to external forces. Incident numbers used in the numeric version of ITERATE are cross-referenced in the textual version, which gives even more detail on the specifics of incidents. New variables can be added to the existing dataset by the user to enhance specific types of analysis. ITERATE readily lends itself to addressing a wide array of research questions at many different levels of analysis. Examples of these include:
Annual patterns of international terrorism
International terrorism frequency and intensity
Victims of international terrorism
Modus operandi of international terrorist groups
International terrorist group behavior vis-a-vis theatres of operations and national targets
Tangible outcomes of international terrorist incidents
Primary venues of international terrorism
Benchmarks of international terrorist activity
Theoretical frameworks and typology development
ITERATE provides a wealth of information for those who wish to analyze international terrorism beyond selective or anecdotal references. ITERATE is a dynamic dataset which continually serves as a basis for new and companion data. Functional aspects of this dataset permit significant means for exploring the intricacies of international terrorism and identifying the underlying factors which ultimately define this form of violence. Hundreds of scholars, journalists, government officials, and security practitioners in two dozen countries have successfully and effectively used ITERATE over the last 30 years to gain a more thorough comprehension of international terrorism and bolster extant knowledge through the presentation of empirical evidence.
Vinyard’s new dataset, DOTS (Data on Terrorist Suspects), provides textual biographic information on every terrorist covered by the chronology. The 15,000-item database serves as a compendium of biographies of Leaders, Perpetrators, Financiers, Defendants, Detainees, Persons of Interest, Conspirators, and Others, including aliases and kunyas, receiving mention in any of the international incidents appearing in ITERATE and other sources from 1960 to the present day.
The datasets are available via Vinyardsoftware@hotmail.com on the Internet or via postal services at Vinyard Software, Inc. 2305 Sandburg Street, Dunn Loring, VA 22027-1124.
Among the projects that have drawn on ITERATE and DOTS are examinations of terrorism’s impact on growth, studies that quantify how policy can cause unanticipated substitutions, indicate trends and seasonality in terrorism, identify and quantify policy effectiveness, indicate the determinants of hostage taking success, measure the impact of political rights on terrorism, investigate the event dynamics of hostage taking, etc.
Books by Mickolus and associates
Edward Mickolus and Susan L. Simmons The Terrorist List: Asia and Africa; A Directory of Leaders, Perpetrators, Financiers, Defendants, Detainees, Persons of Interest, Conspirators, and Others, from 1950-2008 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2009).
Edward Mickolus and Susan L. Simmons The Terrorist List: Europe; A Directory of Leaders, Perpetrators, Financiers, Defendants, Detainees, Persons of Interest, Conspirators, and Others, from 1950-2008 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2009).
Edward Mickolus and Susan L. Simmons The Terrorist List: The Americas; A Directory of Leaders, Perpetrators, Financiers, Defendants, Detainees, Persons of Interest, Conspirators, and Others, from 1950-2008 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2009).
Edward Mickolus The Terrorist List: The Middle East; A Directory of Leaders, Perpetrators, Financiers, Defendants, Detainees, Persons of Interest, Conspirators, and Others, from 1950-2008 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2009).
Edward Mickolus Terrorism, 2005-2007 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2008), 260 pp.
Edward Mickolus with Susan L. Simmons Terrorism, 2002-2004: A Chronology (3 volumes) (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2006), 630 pp.
Edward Mickolus with Susan L. Simmons Terrorism, 1996-2001: A Chronology of Events and a Selectively Annotated Bibliography (2 volumes) (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), 559 pp.
Edward Mickolus with Susan L. Simmons Terrorism, 1992-1995: A Chronology of Events and a Selectively Annotated Bibliography (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997), 976 pp.
Edward Mickolus Terrorism, 1988-1991: A Chronology of Events and a Selectively Annotated Bibliography Bibliographies and Indexes in Military Studies, Number 6 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993), 928 pp.
Edward Mickolus, Todd Sandler and Jean Murdock International Terrorism in the 1980s: A Chronology, Volume 2: 1984-1987 (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989), 696 pp.
Edward Mickolus, Todd Sandler and Jean Murdock International Terrorism in the 1980s: A Chronology, Volume 1: 1980-1983 (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1988), 568 pp.
Edward Mickolus with Peter Flemming Terrorism, 1980-1987: A Selectively Annotated Bibliography (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988), 315 pp.
Edward Mickolus International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events, 1968-1977, ITERATE 2 Data Codebook (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Inter University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 1982), 203 pp.
Edward Mickolus Combatting International Terrorism: A Quantitative Analysis Ph.D. Dissertation, (Political Science, Yale University, 1981), 600 pp.
Edward Mickolus The Literature of Terrorism: A Selectively Annotated Bibliography (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980), 553 pp.
Edward Mickolus Transnational Terrorism: A Chronology of Events, 1968 1979 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980), xxxviii, 967 pp.
Edward Mickolus Annotated Bibliography on International and Transnational Terrorism available in Legal and Other Aspects of Terrorism Course Handbook Series, Number 310 (New York: Practicing Law Institute, 1979), 861 pp.
Edward Mickolus ITERATE: International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events, Data Codebook (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Inter University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 1976), 57 pp.
Edward Mickolus “September 11, 2001 Attacks" in Frank Shanty and Raymond Picquet, eds. Encyclopedia of World Terrorism Santa Barbara: ME Sharpe, 2003, pp. 19-28.
Edward Mickolus “Chronology of Major Terrorist Events, 1996-2002" in Frank Shanty, and Raymond Picquet, eds. Encyclopedia of World Terrorism Santa Barbara: ME Sharpe, 2003, pp. 577-597.
Edward Mickolus "Tracking the Growth and Prevalence of Terrorism" in George S. Roukis and Patrick J. Montana, eds. Managing Terrorism: Strategies for the Corporate Executive (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983), pp. 3 22.
Edward Heyman and Edward Mickolus "Imitation by Terrorists: Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Diffusion Patterns in Transnational Terrorism" in Yonah Alexander and John M. Gleason, eds. Behavioral and Quantitative Perspectives on Terrorism (New York: Pergamon, 1981), pp. 175 228.
Edward Mickolus and Edward Heyman "ITERATE: Monitoring Transnational Terrorism" in Yonah Alexander and John M. Gleason, eds. Behavioral and Quantitative Perspectives on Terrorism (New York: Pergamon, 1981), pp. 153 174.
Edward Mickolus, Edward S. Heyman and James Schlotter "Responding to Terrorism: Basic and Applied Research" in Stephen Sloan and Richard Schultz, eds. Responding to the Terrorist Threat: Security and Crisis Management (New York: Pergamon, 1980), pp. 174-189.
Edward Mickolus "Transnational Terrorism" in Michael Stohl, ed. The Politics of Terrorism (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1979), pp. 147 190, updated for second edition.
Edward Mickolus "Chronology of Transnational Terrorist Attacks upon American Business People, 1968 1976" 1, 2 Terrorism: An International Journal (1978), pp. 217 235, updated in Yonah Alexander and Robert A. Kilmarx, eds. Political Terrorism and Business: The Threat and Response (New York: Praeger, 1979), pp. 297 318.
Edward Mickolus "An Events Data Base for Studying Transnational Terrorism" in Richards J. Heuer, ed. Quantitative Approaches to Political Intelligence: The CIA Experience (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1978), pp. 127 163.
Edward Mickolus "Trends in Transnational Terrorism" in Marius Livingston, ed. Terrorism in the Contemporary World (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978), pp. 44 73.
Edward Mickolus "Statistical Approaches to the Study of Terrorism" in Seymour Maxwell Finger and Yonah Alexander, eds. Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (New York: John Jay Press, 1977), pp. 209-269.
Edward Mickolus "Negotiating for Hostages: A Policy Dilemma" 19, 4 Orbis (Winter 1976), pp. 1309 1325, reprinted in John D. Elliott and Lesley Gibson, eds. Contemporary Terrorism: Selected Readings (Gaithersburg, Maryland: International Association of Chiefs of Police, 1978), pp. 207 221.
Articles and other Professional Society Presentations by Mickolus and associates
Edward Mickolus “How do we know we’re winning the war against terrorists? Issues in Measurement” paper presented at Terrorism and Beyond...The 21st Century: A Conference Addressing Terrorist Threats, Motivations, Concerns, Policies and Predictions for the 21st Century, held at the Myriad Convention Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, as part of the dedication of the Oklahoma City National Memorial, hosted by the Rand Corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, April 17-19, 2000, 15 pp., published in 25:3 Studies in Conflict and Terrorism (May 2002), pp. 151-160.
Edward Mickolus "Disorder in the New World Order? The Future of Terrorism" National Forum: The Phi Kappa Phi Journal (Fall 1992), pp. 33-34, reprinted in Charles Kegley and Eugene Wittkopf, eds. Global Agenda (Boston: McGraw Hill, 1994).
Edward Mickolus "Deadly Logic: Will Hostile Computer Code Become the Terrorism of the 1990s?" paper prepared for the Seminar on Countering Terrorism, sponsored by the Washington, D.C. Chapter of the Terrorist Activities Subcommittee of the American Society for Industrial Security, June 13, 1990.
Edward Mickolus "What Constitutes State Support to Terrorists?" 3, 1 Journal of Terrorism and Political Violence (July 1989), pp. 287-293, reprinted as chapter 12 in Bernard Schechterman and Martin Slann, eds. Violence and Terrorism 91/92, second edition (Sluice Dock, Guilford, Connecticut: The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. 1991), pp. 38-40.
Edward Mickolus "Comment: Terrorists, Governments, and Numbers; Counting Things Versus Things That Count" 31, 1 Journal of Conflict Resolution (March 1987), pp. 54-62.
Edward Heyman and Edward Mickolus "Observations on 'Why Violence Spreads'" 24, 2 International Studies Quarterly (June 1980), pp. 299 305.
Edward Mickolus "Studying Terrorist Incidents: Issues in Conceptualization and Data Acquisition" paper presented to the annual convention of the International Studies Association, Los Angeles, March 1980.
Edward Mickolus "Multilateral Legal Efforts to Combat Terrorism: Diagnosis and Prognosis" 6, 1 Ohio Northern University Law Review (1979), pp. 13 51.
Edward Mickolus "Reflections on the Study of Terrorism" paper presented to the Panel on Violence and Terror of the Conference on Complexity: A Challenge to the Adaptive Capacity of American Society, 1776-1976, sponsored by the Society for General Systems Research, held at the Loyola College Conference Center, Columbia, Maryland, March 24 26, 1977, 9 pp.
Edward Mickolus "Project ITERATE: Quantitative Studies of Transnational Terrorism" paper presented to the annual convention of the Northeast Political Science Association, November 11 13, 1976, at the Jug End, South Egremont, Massachusetts, 49 pp., reprinted by the US Department of State, INR/XR as FAR 26105 N.
Edward Mickolus "International Terrorism: Review and Projection" address to the Conference on Terrorism and the American Corporation, sponsored by Probe International, Inc., held in New York City, September 14 15, 1976, 51 pp., tables and graphics available from Probe. Updated for conferences held in Los Angeles, January 11 12, 1977, and Chicago, September 26 27, 1977.
David L. Milbank with Edward Mickolus International and Transnational Terrorism: Diagnosis and Prognosis (available from Washington, D.C.: US Document Expediting Project, Library of Congress, PR 76 10030, April 1976), 46 pp.
Todd Sandler, John Tschirhart and Jon Cauley “A Theoretical Analysis of Transnational Terrorism,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 77, No. 1, March 1983, pp. 36-54. Republished in Rosemary O’Kane (ed.), Terrorism (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2005), pp. 444-462.
Todd Sandler and John Scott “Terrorist Success in Hostage-Taking Incidents: An Empirical Study,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 31, No. 1, March 1987, pp. 35-53.
Scott Atkinson, Todd Sandler, and John Tschirhart “Terrorism in a Bargaining Framework,”, Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 30, No. 1, April 1987, pp. 1-21. Republished in Isaac
Ehrlich and Zhiqiang Liu, The Economics of Crime (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2006).
Eric Iksoon Im, Jon Cauley, and Todd Sandler “Cycles and Substitutions in Terrorist Activities: A Spectral Approach,” Kyklos, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1987, pp. 238-255.
Todd Sandler and Harvey Lapan “The Calculus of Dissent: An Analysis of Terrorists' Choice of Targets,” Synthèse, Vol. 76, No. 2, August 1988, pp. 245-261.
Dwight Lee and Todd Sandler “On the Optimal Retaliation Against Terrorists: The Paid-Rider Option,” Public Choice, Vol. 61, No. 2, 1989, pp. 141-152.
Walter Enders, Todd Sandler, and Jon Cauley “U.N. Conventions, Technology, and Retaliation in the Fight Against Terrorism: An Econometric Evaluation,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 1990, 83-105.
Walter Enders, Todd Sandler, and Jon Cauley “Assessing the Impact of Terrorist-Thwarting Policies: An Intervention Time Series Approach,” Defence Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1, December 1990, pp. 1-18.
Todd Sandler, Walter Enders and Harvey Lapan “Economic Analysis Can Help Fight International Terrorism,” Challenge, Vol. 34, No. 1, January/February 1991, pp. 10-17. Republished in Bernard Schechterman and Martin Slann (eds.), Violence and Terrorism, Annual Editions, Third Edition (Sluice Dock, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group, 1993), pp. 192-199.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “The Causality Between Transnational Terrorism and Tourism: The Case of Spain,” Terrorism: An International Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, January-March 1991, pp. 49-58
Walter Enders, Gerald Parise, Todd Sandler “A Time-Series Analysis of Transnational Terrorism: Trends and Cycles,” Defence Economics, Vol. 3, No. 4, November 1992, pp. 305-320.
Walter Enders, Todd Sandler, and Gerald Parise “An Econometric Analysis of the Impact of Terrorism on Tourism,” Kyklos, Vol. 45, No. 4, 1992, pp. 531-554.
Harvey E. Lapan and Todd Sandler “Terrorism and Signalling,” European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1993, pp. 383-397.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “The Effectiveness of Anti-Terrorism Policies: A VAR-Intervention Analysis,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 87, No. 4, December 1993, pp. 829-844. An abbreviated version was republished in Terrorism, Violence, and Insurrections, Vol. 11, No. 3, Summer 1995, pp. 1-5. Republished in Alan O’Day, ed. War on Terrorism (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004), pp. 401-416.
Todd Sandler “On the Relationship between Democracy and Terrorism,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 1995, pp. 1-9.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “Terrorism and Foreign Direct Investment in Spain and Greece,” Kyklos, Vol. 49, No. 3, 1996, pp. 331-352.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “Transnational Terrorism in the Post-Cold War Era,” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 43, No. 1, March 1999, pp. 145-167. Republished in Alan O’Day, ed. Dimensions of Terrorism (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004), pp. 475-497.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “Is Transnational Terrorism Becoming More Threatening? A Time-Series Investigation,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 44, No. 3, June 2000, pp. 307-332.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “Patterns of Transnational Terrorism, 1970-99: Alternative Time Series Estimates,” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 2, June 2002, pp. 145-165.
Todd Sandler “Collective Action and Transnational Terrorism,” World Economy, Vol. 26, No. 6, June 2003, pp. 779-802.
Todd Sandler and Daniel G. Arce M. “Terrorism and Game Theory,” Simulation & Gaming, Vol. 34, No. 3, September 2003, pp. 319-337.
Todd Sandler and Walter Enders “An Economic Perspective on Transnational Terrorism,” European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 20, No. 2, June 2004, pp. 301-316. Republished in Tilman Brück, ed. The Economic Analysis of Terrorism (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2007), pp. 13-28.
B. Peter Rosendorff and Todd Sandler “Too Much of a Good Thing? The Proactive Response Dilemma” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 48, No. 5, October 2004, pp. 657-671
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “Transnational Terrorism 1968-2000: Thresholds, Persistence, and Forecasts,” Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 71, No. 3, January 2005, pp. 467-483.
Todd Sandler and Walter Enders “September 11 and Its Aftermath,” International Studies Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 65-168.
Daniel G. Arce M. and Todd Sandler “Counterterrorism: A Game-Theoretic Analysis,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2005, pp. 83-200.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “After 9/11: Is It All Different Now?” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2005, pp. 259-277.
Todd Sandler “Collective versus Unilateral Responses to Terrorism,” Public Choice, Vol. 124, No. 1, July 2005, pp. 75-93.
Todd Sandler “Recognizing the Limits to Cooperation behind National Borders: Financing the Control of Transnational Terrorism,” in Inge Kaul and Pedro Conceição, eds., The New Public Finance: Responding to Global Challenges (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006) pp. 194-216.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “Distribution of Transnational Terrorism among Countries by Income Classes and Geography after 9/11,” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 2, June 2006, pp. 367-393.
Kate Ivanova and Todd Sandler “CBRN Incidents: Political Regimes, Perpetrators, and Targets,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 18, No. 3, Fall 2006, pp. 423-448.
Todd Sandler and Kevin Siqueira “Global Terrorism: Deterrence versus Preemption,” Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 50, No. 4, November 2006, pp. 1370-1387.
Walter Enders, Adolfo Sachsida, and Todd Sandler “The Impact of Transnational Terrorism on US Foreign Direct Investment,” Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 59, No. 4, December 2006, pp. 517-531.
Kevin Siqueira and Todd Sandler “Terrorists Versus the Government: Strategic Interaction, Support, and Sponsorship,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 50, No. 6, December 2006, pp. 878-898.
Todd Sandler and Walter Enders “Applying Analytical Methods to Study Terrorism,” International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 8, No. 3, August 2007, pp. 287-302.
Kevin Siqueira and Todd Sandler “Terrorist Backlash, Terrorism Mitigation, and Policy Delegation,” Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 91, No. 9, September 2007, pp. 1800-1815.
Kate Ivanova and Todd Sandler “CBRN Attack Perpetrators: An Empirical Study,” Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 4, October 2007, pp. 273-294.
Daniel G. Arce and Todd Sandler “Terrorist Signalling and the Value of Intelligence,” British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 37, No. 4, October 2007, pp. 573-586.
Todd Sandler and Walter Enders “Economic Consequences of Terrorism in Developed and Developing Countries: An Overview,” in Philip Keefer and Norman Loayza (eds.), Terrorism, Economic Development and Political Openness (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 17-47.
Khusrav Gaibulloev and Todd Sandler “Growth Consequences of Terrorism in Western Europe,” Kyklos, Vol. 61, No. 3, 2008, pp. 411-424.
Beom S. Lee, Walter Enders, and Todd Sandler “9/11: What Did We Know and When Did We Know It,” Defence and Peace Economics, Vol. 20, forthcoming 2009.
Kevin Siqueira and Todd Sandler “Defensive Counterterrorism Measures and Domestic Politics,” Defence and Peace Economics, Vol. 19, forthcoming 2008.
Patrick Brandt and Todd Sandler “Hostage Taking: Understanding Terrorism Event Dynamics,” Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 31, forthcoming 2009.
Todd Sandler and Kevin Siqueira “Games and Terrorism: Recent Developments,” Simulation & Gaming, Vol. 40, No. 1, March 2009, forthcoming.
Khusrav Gaibulloev and Todd Sandler “Hostage Taking: Determinants of Terrorist Logistical and Negotiation Success,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 46, No. 6, November 2009, forthcoming.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler The Political Economy of Terrorism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006), 278 pages.
Todd Sandler, Scott Atkinson, et al. “Economic Methods and the Study of Terrorism,” in Paul Wilkinson and A. W. Stewart, eds., Contemporary Research on Terrorism (Aberdeen, Scotland: Aberdeen University Press, 1987), pp. 376-389.
Todd Sandler “On Terrorism, Guerrilla Warfare, and Insurrections,” Defence Economics, Vol. 3, No. 4, November 1992, pp. 259-261.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “Terrorism: Theory and Applications,” in Keith Hartley and Todd Sandler, eds., Handbook of Defense Economics (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1995), pp. 213-249.
Todd Sandler “What Economics Tells Us to Prevent Terrorism,” An Interview in Challenge, Vol. 45, No. 3, May/June 2002, pp. 5-12.
Todd Sandler “Terrorism and Game Theory, An Interview,” Swiss Military Review, No. 12, December 2002, pp. 4-5.
Walter Enders and Todd Sandler “What Do We Know about the Substitution Effect in Transnational Terrorism,” in Andrew Silke, ed., Researching Terrorism: Trends, Achievements, Failures (Ilford, UK: Frank Cass, 2004), pp. 119-137.
B. Peter Rosendorff and Todd Sandler “The Political Economy of Transnational Terrorism,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2005, pp. 171-182.
Carlos P. Barros, Christos Kollias, and Todd Sandler “Introduction: Security Challenges and Threats in a Post-9/11 World,” Defence and Peace Economics, Vol. 16, No. 5, October 2005, pp. 327-329.
Todd Sandler and Walter Enders “Transnational Terrorism: An Economic Analysis,” in Harry W. Richardson, Peter Gordon, and James E. Moore II, eds., The Economic Impact of Terrorist Attacks (Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar, 2005), pp. 11-34.
Todd Sandler “Economic Methods and the Study of Terrorism: An Evaluation,” in Jeffrey Victoroff, ed., Tangled Roots: Social and Psychological Factors in the Genesis of Terrorism (Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2006), pp. 115-129.
Todd Sandler with Daniel G. Arce “Terrorism: A Game-Theoretic Approach,” in Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (eds.), Handbook of Defense Economics, Vol. 2 (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 2007), pp. 775-813.
A recent Internet search of ITERATE and DOTS-based terrorism research generated more than 23,000 citations. This is a very small sampler of such research:
Graham Bird, S. Brock Blomberg and Gregory D. Hess “International Terrorism: Causes, Consequences and Cures” World Economy, Vol. 31, 2, January 2008, pp. 255-274.
Stephen Brock Blomberg, Gregory D. Hess and Akila Weerapana “Economic Conditions and Terrorism” European Journal of Political Economy, Volume 20, Issue 2, June 2004, pp. 463-478.
Stephen Brock Blomberg and Stephen Sheppard The Impacts of Terrorism on Urban Form Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 2007, pp. 257-290
Michael X. Delli Carpini and Bruce A. Williams “Terrorism and the Media: Patterns of Occurrence and Presentation, 1969-1980” in Henry H. Han, ed. Terrorism, Political Violence and the World Order (New York, NY: University Press of America, 1984), pp. 103-134.
Dilip K. Das, Peter C. Kratcoski Meeting the Challenges of Global Terrorism: Prevention, Control, and Recovery Lexington Books, 2003, 329 pages.
Konstantinos Drakos and Nicholas Giannakopoulos “Counter Terrorism: The Impact on Life and Property” paper presented at the Network on the Economic Analysis of Terrorism, Berlin, April 2008, 14 pp., available as http://www.economics-of-security.eu/neat/tavares.pdf
Laura Dugan, Gary LaFree, and Heather Fogg “A First Look at Domestic and International Global Terrorism Events, 1970–1997” S. Mehrotra et al. (Eds.): ISI 2006, LNCS 3975, pp. 407 – 419, 2006.
Susan Fahey, Gary LaFree, Laura Dugan, and Alex Piquero “Exploring the Situational Determinants of Aerial Hijackings” National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, START, 2 pp., available as http://www.orau.gov/DHS_RE_Summit07/abstracts/Fahey.pdf
Bruno S. Frey Dealing With Terrorism: Stick or Carrot? Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005, 182 pp.
Bruno S. Frey and Simon Luechinger “Measuring Terrorism” in Alain Marciano and Jean-Michel Josselin, eds. Law and the State. A Political Economy Approach Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar, 2005, pp. 142-181.
Harold V. Hall Lethal Violence: A Sourcebook on Fatal Domestic, Acquaintance, and Stranger Violence CRC Press, 1998, 714 pp.
William Josiger "Fear Factor: The Impact of Terrorism on Public Opinion in the US, UK and Israel" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, February 28, 2007.
William Josiger "Know Thine Enemies: Understanding the Factors that Motivate Terrorists" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, March 17, 2004.
G. Andrew Karolyi “The Consequences of Terrorism for Financial Markets: What Do We Know?” Fisher College of Business, Ohio State University, 2006, 12 pp.
Brian Lai "Examining the Number of Incidents of Terrorism Within States, 1968-1977" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 27, 2003.
Quan Li and Drew Schaub “Economic Globalization and Transnational Terrorist Incidents: A Pooled Time Series Cross Sectional Analysis,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48, 2, 2004, pp. 230-258.
Fernanda Llussá and José Tavares “The Economics of Terrorism: A Synopsis” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal Vol. 2, No. 1 (2007), pp. 62-70.
Sean P. O’Brien “Foreign Policy Crises and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 40, 2, June 1996, pp. 320-335.
Carlos Pestana Barros “Mixed Logit Estimation of Radical Islamic Terrorism in Europe and North America: A Comparative Study” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 49, No. 2 (2005), pp. 298-314.
Edna O. F. Reid “Terrorism Research and the Diffusion of Ideas” Knowledge and Policy: The International Journal of Knowledge Transfer and Utilization 6, 1 Spring 1993, pp. 17-37.
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